Srí Lanka - Všeobecné informácie
 
    Sinhálski obyvatelia prišli na Srí Lanku koncom 6 storočia p.n.l., pravdepodobne zo severnej Indie. Počiatky Buddhism siahajú na začiatok až stred tretieho storočia p.n.l.,  a stará civilizácia civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa 1000 A.D.) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty seized power in the north and established a Tamil kingdom. Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in 1796, became a crown colony in 1802, and was united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in an ethnic war that continues to fester. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam began a ceasefire in December 2001, with Norway brokering peace negotiations.

 Geografické údaje

Poloha:

Južná Ázia, ostrov v Indickom Oceáne, južne od Indie 

Geografické koordináty:

7 00 N, 81 00 E

Oblasť:

celkovo: 65,610 sq km
vodná plocha: 870 sq km
krajina: 64,740 sq km

Hranice krajiny

0 km

Pobrežie

1,340 km

Maritime claims:

contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Podnebie:

tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain:

mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Prírodné zdroje:

limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 13.43%
permanent crops: 15.78%
other: 70.79% (1998 odhad)

Irrigated land:

6,510 sq km (1998 odhad)

Natural hazards:

occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Environment - current issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:

strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

Obyvateľstvo

Populácia:

19,742,439 (2003 odhad)
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of yearend 2000, approximately 65,000 were housed in 131 refugee camps in south India, another 40,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge in the West (July 2003 odhad)

Veková štruktúra:

0-14 years: 25.2% (male 2,543,336; female 2,431,223)
15-64 years: 67.9% (male 6,518,145; female 6,890,424)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 641,708; female 717,603) (2003 odhad)

Priemerný vek:

celkovo: 28.7 rokov
muži: 27.7 rokov
ženy: 29.7 rokov (2002)

Populačný rast:

0.83% (2003 odhad)

Pôrodnosť:

16.12 narodení/1,000 obyvateľov (2003 odhad)

Úmrtnosť:

6.46 úmrtí/1,000 obyvateľov (2003 odhad)

Migrácia:

-1.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 odhad)

Pohlavie:

pri narodení: 1.05 muži/ženy
pod 15 rokov: 1.05 muži/ženy
15-64 rokov: 0.95 muži/ženy
65 rokov a viac: 0.89 muži/ženy
celková populácia: 0.97 muži/ženy (2003 odhad)

Infant mortality rate:

celkovo: 15.22 deaths/1,000 live births
ženy: 13.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 odhad)
muži: 16.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 72.62 years
male: 70.09 years
female: 75.29 years (2003 odhad)

Total fertility rate:

1.9 children born/woman (2003 odhad)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2001 odhad)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

4,800 (2001 odhad)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

250 (2001 odhad)

Národnosť:

noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups:

Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%

Náboženstvo:

Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)

Jazyky:

Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population

Gramotnosť:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.3%
male: 94.8%
female: 90% (2003 odhad)

 Štátna správa - vláda

Country name:

conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
former: Serendib, Ceylon

Vládne zriadenie:

republika

Hlavné mesto:

Colombo; poznámka - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte je legislatívne hlavné mestois the legislative capital

Administrative divisions:

8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western; note - North Eastern province may have been divided in two - Northern and Eastern

Nezávislosť:

4 február 1948 (s pod nadvlády Británie)

Národný sviatok:

Deň nezávislosti,  4 február  (1948)

Constitution:

adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system:

a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since 9 December 2001) is the prime minister; the president is considered both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since 9 December 2001) is the prime minister; the president is considered both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 21 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2005)
election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA reelected president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (PA) 51%, Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (UNP) 42%, other 7%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of a modified proportional representation system by district to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party or electoral alliance - UNP, SLMC and CWC 46.8%, PA and EPDP 38%, JVP 9.1%, TNA 3.89%, PLOTE 0.19%; seats by party or electoral alliance - UNP, SLMC and CWC 114, PA and EPDP 79, JVP 16, TNA 15, PLOTE 1

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:

All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [KUMARGURUPARAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front or DUNLF [Shrimani ATULATHMUDALI]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Tilvan SILVA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF]; People's Alliance or PA [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [leader NA]; Sihala Urumaya or SU [Tilak KARUNARATNE]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [P. Nelson PERERA]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [SABARATNAM]; Tamil National Alliance or TNA [Nadarajah RAVIRAJ]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [R. SAMPATHAN]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Upcountry People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either Parliament or provincial councils

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting for a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups

International organization participation:

AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Devinda R. SUBASINGHE
consulate(s): New York
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 (through 4028)
chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador E. Ashley WILLS
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (1) 448007
FAX: [94] (1) 437345

Flag description:

yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

 Ekonomika

Economy - overview:

In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, and insurance and banking. By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted for 63%. GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% in the early 1990s until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000 with average growth of 5.3%, but 2001 saw the first contraction in the country's history, -1.4%, due to a combination of power shortages, severe budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife. Growth recovered to 3.2% in 2002. About 800,000 Sri Lankans work abroad, 90% in the Middle East. They send home about $1 billion a year.

GDP:

purchasing power parity - $73.7 billion (2002 odhad)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.2% (2002 odhad)

GDP - per capita:

purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 odhad)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 20%
industry: 26%
services: 54% (2001)

Population below poverty line:

22% (1997 odhad)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 28% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

34.4 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

9.6% (2002 odhad)

Labor force:

6.6 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation:

services 45%, agriculture 38%, industry 17% (1998 odhad)

Unemployment rate:

8% (2002)

Budget:

revenues: $2.8 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 odhad)

Industries:

rubber processing, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:

1.1% (2002)

Electricity - production:

6.36 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - production by source:

fossil fuel: 51.7%
hydro: 48.3%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption:

5.915 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2001)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2001)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2001 odhad)

Oil - consumption:

75,000 bbl/day (2001 odhad)

Oil - exports:

NA (2001)

Oil - imports:

NA (2001)

Agriculture - products:

rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef

Exports:

$4.6 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Exports - commodities:

textiles and apparel, tea, diamonds, coconut products, petroleum products

Exports - partners:

US 39.1%, UK 12.9%, Belgium 4.7%, Germany 4.5% (2002)

Imports:

$5.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)

Imports - commodities:

textiles, mineral products, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment

Imports - partners:

India 11%, Hong Kong 7.6%, Singapore 7.1%, China 6.3%, Taiwan 5.9%, South Korea 5.7%, Japan 5.3%, Iran 4.2% (2002)

Debt - external:

$9.8 billion (2002)

Economic aid - recipient:

$577 million (1998)

Currency:

Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)

Currency code:

LKR

Exchange rates:

Sri Lankan rupees per US dollar - 95.66 (2002), 89.38 (2001), 77.01 (2000), 70.64 (1999), 64.45 (1998)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

  Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:

494,509 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

228,604 (1999)

Telephone system:

general assessment: very inadequate domestic service, particularly in rural areas; likely improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999)
domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999)
international: submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 26, FM 45, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

21 (1997)

Internet country code:

.lk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):

5 (2000)

Internet users:

121,500 (2001)

  Doprava

Railways:

total: 1,508 km
broad gauge: 1,449 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2002)

Highways:

total: 96,695 km
paved: 91,860 km
unpaved: 4,835 km (1999)

Waterways:

430 km (navigable by shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines:

crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Ports and harbors:

Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee

Merchant marine:

total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 62,157 GRT/84,898 DWT
ships by type: cargo 13, container 1, petroleum tanker 1
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 9, Hong Kong 1, UAE 1 (2002 odhad)

Airports:

15 (2002)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)

 Military

Military branches:

Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower - military age:

18 years of age (2003 odhad)

Military manpower - availability:

males age 15-49: 5,383,661 (2003 odhad)

Military manpower - fit for military service:

males age 15-49: 4,172,921 (2003 odhad)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:

males: 186,691 (2003 odhad)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:

$719 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:

4.2% (FY98)